In this Tunnels and Tunneling magazine article, Keivan Rafie explains sequential excavation method tunneling: its basics, support requirements, and ground considerations
Sequential excavation method (SEM) is a type of tunnel design and construction that started to gain popularity in the 1960s and 1970s. The essential component of the SEM approach is to take advantage of the natural capacity and strength of surrounding geology to support the tunnel with minimum cost and time required.
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